## Measures of Dispersion

To get an idea of the shape of data, we can’t use Mean, Median or Mode. Instead the Measurements of Dispersion are used, which are done with the following functions: Range Standard Deviation Variance Range Simply this is the literal range, if we were measuring heights of a sample of Continue Reading

## Measure of Central Tendency

When we want to know averages and middle aspects of our data, we use measures of central tendency. Measures of central tendency are described with three primary functions: Mean Median Mode The mean is simply the average of a dataset. The median is the middle point of the dataset. The Continue Reading

## Common Stats Symbols

x! x! refers to a factorial of x. Meaning, that if x = 5, then x! = 5*4*3*2*1 = 120. In Python we can use the scipy library: x̄ X bar is a reference to the sample mean (as opposed to the population mean.) In Python you can calculate a Continue Reading

## Measuring Types

In Statistics there are several measuring types: Nominal Types These are predetermined categories and they can’t be sorted. An example would be Political Parties. Ordinal These types of data can be sorted by they lack a sense of scale. An example would be a form with options, “Love it, It’s Continue Reading

## Relative Frequency Table

While it sounds somewhat complex, a Relative Frequency Table is a two-way data table, but the values are in percentages. Column Relative Frequency With a one-way table, a relative frequency can be arranged if you use percentages and add up the fields to a total value. In the case of Continue Reading

## Two-Way Data

This is basic stuff, but just to get it out there, a one-way data is a dataset that requires only one question to ask. Two way data can answer two questions… for example, in the data below we have a record of suicides by country, but Gender is also brought Continue Reading

## Python and Private Methods

After my realization that Groovy doesn’t actually allow private methods or fields, I returned to doing some work with Python. I like Python for the data science libraries behind it. But now, after doing work in Kotlin, Java and Qt’s C++… returning to Python was like walking home only to Continue Reading

## Private Methods

While doing some research on Python, I came across a Stack Overflow question. It was about private fields and methods in Python. As I scrolled through the answers, I caught sight of a very odd response. This responder (who’s title was “Software Architect”) boldly stated that they worked in Java Continue Reading

## Kotlin: Private Properties and Methods

Recently I wrote about the frustration I had with private fields, properties and methods in Groovy/Grails (or the lack thereof.) For reference, that article is linked below: Kotlin behaves like Groovy in some regards, and like Java in others. Like Groovy, Kotlin has implicit getters and setters. Above, the age Continue Reading

## Groovy !Encapsulation

I don’t know why I always kinda felt weird writing code in Groovy. Having avoided Java development for years, I liked how Grails/Groovy was easy to create something. What I learned later (when I learned Java Development and C++ Development) is that Groovy had some odd concepts, especially when it Continue Reading